By Peggy Kirk Hall and Ellen Essman, Ohio State University Extension Agricultural & Resource Law Program
Ohio’s newly created hemp program is one step further toward getting off the ground. On Oct. 9, the Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) released its anxiously awaited proposal of the rules that will regulate hemp production in Ohio. ODA seeks public comments on the proposed regulations until Oct. 30, 2019.
There are two parts to the rules package: one rule for hemp cultivation and another for hemp processing. Here’s an overview of the components of each rule:
- Hemp cultivation
The first rule addresses the “cultivation” of hemp, which means “to plant, water, grow, fertilize, till or harvest a plant or crop.” Cultivating also includes “possessing or storing a plant or cop on a premises where the plant was cultivated until transported to the first point of sale.” The proposal lays out the following regulatory process for those who wish to cultivate hemp in Ohio.
Anyone who wants to grow hemp must receive a hemp cultivation license from the ODA. Licenses are valid for three years. To obtain a license, the would-be hemp cultivator must submit an application during the application window, which will be between Nov. 1 and March 31. The application requires the applicant to provide personal information about the applicant, and if the applicant is a business, information about who is authorized to sign on behalf of the business, who will be primarily responsible for hemp operations and the identity of those having a financial interest greater than ten percent in the entity. The cultivation license application will also seek information about each location where hemp will be grown, including the GPS coordinates, physical address, number of outdoor acres or indoor square footage, and maps of each field, greenhouse, building or storage facility where hemp will grow or be stored. Cultivators must pay a license application fee of $100, and once licensed, an additional license fee of $500 for each growing location, which the rule defines as “a contiguous land area or single building in which hemp is grown or planned to be grown.” All applicants and anyone with a controlling interest in the hemp cultivation business must also submit to a criminal records check by the bureau of criminal identification and investigation.
Land use restrictions
The proposed rules state that a licensed hemp cultivator shall not:
- Plant or grow cannabis that is not hemp.
- Plant or grow hemp on any site not approved by the ODA.
- Plant, grow, handle or store hemp in or within 100 feet of a residential structure or 500 feet of a school or public park, unless for approved research.
- Co-mingle hemp with other crops without prior approval from ODA.
- Plant or grow hemp outdoors on less than one-quarter acre, indoors on less than 1,000 square feet, or in a quantity of less than 1,000 plants without prior approval from ODA.
- Plant or grow hemp within half a mile of a parcel licensed for medical marijuana cultivation.
- Plant or grow hemp on property that the license holder does not own or lease.
Licensed growers would be required to submit a report to ODA at least 15 days before their intended harvest date and pay a pre-harvest sample fee of $150. ODA then has to sample the hemp for THC content, and only if approved can a cultivator harvest the crop, which in most cases must occur within 15 days after the sample is taken. Failing to harvest within the 15-day window might require a secondary sampling and sampling fee. A cultivator would be required to have a hemp release form from ODA before moving any harvested materials beyond the storage facility.
The proposed rules also allow for random sampling of hemp by ODA and provide details on how ODA will conduct the sampling and charge sampling fees. Any cultivator is subject to random sampling in each location where hemp has been cultivated. ODA will report testing results that exceed 0.3 THC to the cultivator, who may request a second sample. A cultivator must follow procedures for destroying any leaf, seed, or floral material from plants that exceed 0.3 THC and any material that was co-mingled with the 0.3 THC materials, but may harvest bare hemp stalks for fiber.
Destruction of hemp
Under the proposed regulations, a license holder must submit a destruction report before destroying hemp and ODA must be present to witness the destruction. The proposed rules also authorize ODA to destroy a crop that was ordered destroyed, abandoned, or otherwise not harvested and assess the costs against the licensee.
Reporting and recordkeeping
Records are also important in the proposed rules. Licensed cultivators must submit a planting report on an ODA form for each growing location by July 1 or within 15 days of planting or replanting, which shall include the crop’s location, number of acres or square footage, variety name, and primary intended use. The rule would also require licensees to submit a completed production report by December 31 of each year. A licensee that fails to submit the required reports would be subject to penalties and fines. Cultivators must maintain planting, harvest, destruction and production reports for three years.
Control of volunteer plants
A licensee must scout and monitor unused fields for volunteer hemp plants and destroy the plants for a period of three years past the last date of reported planting. Failing to do so can result in enforcement action or destruction of the plants by ODA with costs assessed to the licensee.
Pesticide and fertilizer use
The laws and rules that apply to other crops will also apply to hemp, except that when using a pesticide on a site where hemp will be planted, the cultivator must comply with the longest of any planting restriction interval on the product label. ODA may perform pesticide testing randomly, and any hemp seeds, plants and materials that exceed federal pesticide residue tolerances will be subject to forfeiture or destruction without compensation.
The proposed rule states that licensed cultivators cannot use any part of a hemp plant that ODA has listed as a prohibited variety of hemp on its website.
Clone and seed production
Special rules apply to hemp cultivators who plan to produce clones, cuttings, propagules, and seed for propagation purposes. The cultivator can only sell the seeds or plants to other licensed cultivators and must maintain records on the variety, strain and certificate of analysis for the “mother plants.” The licensee need not submit a harvest report, but must keep sales records for three years of the purchaser, date of sale, and variety and number of plants or seeds purchased.
Universities may research hemp cultivation without a license but private and non-profit entities that want to conduct research must have a cultivation license. Cultivation research licensees would be exempt from many parts of the proposed rules, but must not sell or transfer any part of the plants and must destroy the plants when the research ends.
The proposed rule grants authority to the ODA to deny, suspend or revoke cultivation licenses for those who’ve provide false or misleading information, haven’t completed a background check, plead guilty to a felony relating to controlled substances within the past 10 years, or violated the hemp laws and rules three or more times in a five-year period.
- Hemp processing
The proposed rules package by ODA also addresses processing, which the rule defines as “converting hemp into a hemp product” but does not include on-farm drying or dehydrating of raw hemp materials by a licensed hemp cultivator for sale directly to a licensed hemp processor. Because of this definition, many farmers who want only to grow and dry hemp would need only a cultivation license. Growers who want to process their licensed hemp into CBD oil or other products, however, must also obtain a processing license. The processing rules follow a similar pattern to their cultivation counterpart, as follows.
In addition to submitting the same personal, business and location information as a cultivation license requires, a hemp processing license application must list the types of hemp products that the processor plans to produce. An “extraction operational plan” including safety measures and guidelines is required for processors who want to extract CBD from hemp to produce their product, and an applicant must indicate compliance with all building, fire, safety and zoning requirements. The amount of the license fee depends on what part of the hemp plant the processor plans to process. Processing raw hemp fiber, for example, requires a $500 license fee for each processing site, whereas processing the raw floral component of hemp requires a $3000 fee for each site. Like the cultivation license, a processing license is valid for three years. Applicants and those with a controlling interest in the business must submit to a background check.
Land use restrictions
The proposed regulations would prevent a licensed processor from:
- Processing or storing any cannabis that is not hemp.
- Processing or storing hemp or hemp products on any site not approved by ODA.
- Processing, handling, or storing hemp or hemp products in or adjacent to a personal residence or in any structure used for residential use or on land zoned for residential use.
- Processing hemp within 500 feet of a school or public park, except for approved research.
A licensed processor must meet standards of financial responsibility, which require having current assets at least $10,000 or five percent of the total purchase of raw hemp materials in the previous calendar year, whichever is greater, and possessing a surety bond.
Inspection and sampling
As with cultivation licensees, hemp processing licensees would be subject to inspection and sampling by ODA under the proposed rule.
Food safety regulations
The proposed rule requires hemp processes to comply with federal and state food safety regulations.
Sources and extraction of cannabinoids (CBD)
A processor who wants to extract or sell CBD products must obtain the materials from a licensed or approved cultivator or processor in Ohio or another state with hemp cultivation licenses. The regulation outlines components of the extraction operational plan that a processor must submit with the processing application, as well as acceptable extraction methods and required training.
A hemp processor must test hemp products at an accredited testing laboratory before selling the products. The proposed rule describes the testing procedures, which address microbial contaminants, cannabinoid potency, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticide and fertilizer residue and residual solvents. There are testing exemptions, however, for hemp used exclusively for fiber, derived exclusively from hemp seed and hemp extracts. The testing laboratory must create a certificate of analysis for each batch or lot of the tested hemp product.
Processor waste disposal
Under the proposed rule, a licensed processor must follow procedures for proper disposal of hemp byproducts and waste and must maintain disposal records.
Labeling requirements are also proposed in the rule. A processor must label all hemp products except for those made exclusively from hemp fiber as outlined in the rule and in compliance with federal law and other existing Ohio regulations for standards of identify and food coloring.
As we’d expect, the proposal states that hemp processors must maintain records for five years that relate to the purchase of raw, unprocessed plant materials, the purchase or use of extracted cannabinoids, and the extraction process.
Finally, the proposed rules include a list of hemp products that cannot be offered for sale, which includes hemp products with over 0.3 percent THC by dry weight basis, hemp products which laboratory testing determines do not meet standards of identity or that exceed the amount of mytoxins, heavy metals, or pesticides allowed, and any hemp products produced illegally.
What’s next for the hemp rules?
Keep in mind that these rules are not yet set in stone; they are a simply a proposal for hemp licensing rules in Ohio. Those interested in cultivating or processing hemp in the future should read the draft rules carefully. Anyone can submit comments on the proposed rules. Your comments could affect what the final hemp rules require for hemp cultivators and processors. After ODA reviews all comments, it will issue its final hemp licensing regulations.
Federal law requires that after Ohio finalizes its rules, ODA must submit them to the USDA for approval. That approval won’t occur, however, until USDA completes its own hemp regulations, which are due out in proposal form any day now. Ohio’s rules will become effective once USDA approves them, hopefully in time for the 2020 planting season.
I strongly disagree with the land restrictions. For us urban farmers here in the City of Cleveland ,who vigorously promote high density farming, these restriction eliminate any chance of getting a growing license. Hemp can be responsibly grown on a small scale in an urban environment without any hazardous effects on a residential structure within 100 ft.
I also strongly disagree with a minimum of 1000 plants.
This is another hit against urban farmers to have fair and unbiased access at the great financial opportunity that the deregulation of hemp provides.
My envision of my urban hemp farm would be a 20x 40 passive solar greenhouse on a vacant lot with a 6 foot privacy fence I presently own that sits idle.
My plan would include 50 cherry wine strain female hemp plants which on average yield 1 lbs of dried flower. This would yield 50 lbs at the current market of $100/ oz.
So by adding these restrictions, my $80,000 economic opportunity has been unfairly taken away. I am a single father of two girls who has a hard time supporting them without child support. This is the door to economic freedom us urban farmers so greatly deserve as well as need.
Please do not exclude Ohio urban citizens the same rights and opportunities only rural residents are proposed to be given.
Please feel to contact me via email in regards to this matter at email@example.com
I am sympathetic to your situation. As a rural farmer intending to submit a license application, I don’t operate under the restrictions that will unfortunately prevent you from participating in the market. But i do feel for those in your situation. Perhaps you can with a licensed grower who can dedicate to you a small subplot.
A few things to note.
Did you submit a memo to the official public comment email on the ODA website? That is the only way to formally register your comments. If not, your voice has not gone heard. The window for public comment closed on October 30th.
The other point is make is your vastly inflated estimates of the crop value. Current farm-gate wholesale values of high quality CBD colas are roughly $325 / lb dried. Far from the $1600 you seem to be planning around. Current pricing trend is downward, and will continue to be for the next 1-2 seasons. Producers of bulk commodity raw materials are being squeezed; brands with distribution of value added consumer products are the winners.
That’s a great vision for craft hemp
But they are favoring the big farmers who bring in more money
Besides in the City you will have every thief within 10 miles sizing up your crop
They are to stupid to understand it won’t get you high
And Tod those figures are ridiculous
No wonder every idiot who never grew in their life is now a pro hemp farmer
Actually about 65% of the crop this year rotted in the field due to weather lack of processing lack of labor or no storage
So they are saying one can not grow himself 2-5 plants at home?! What a crock of B.S.
The cost of processing licensure is too high. Everyone will grow. No one will process. That means rotting, useless crop. No thanks.
I don’t know if I was thinking of farming hemp if I could deal with the idea of the constant stress and loss of sleep that would come from constantly worrying if my crop will “Run Hot” on THC levels. You could plant a huge crop spend all Spring, Summer and part of fall tending to that crop and then find out you must now mow down and destroy your entire crop. Seriously WTF? It generally takes THC levels of at least 3-5% to get any real psychoactive effects from it. Most illegal *Commercial” Marijuana sold on the streets in the US these days contains between 12-15% THC. The “Good Stuff” sold at legal dispensaries averages 15-20% and even some varieties having as high as 25% THC. The regulatory law standards of anything above 0.3% considered illegal Marijuana and having to be destroyed is total BS! They could at the very least give these farmers some breathing room and raise that limit to 1%! I can guarantee you no one is getting high off hemp flower with a THC concentration of 1% All the risks and worries farmers have to deal with growing hemp are enough without having to deal with this asnine 0.3% THC concentration limit rule.
Info on hemp grow and harvest
I would like to get to register to start growing hemp
The proposed law is okay for me because giving the farmers a license to grow hemp and a database entry that will prove to anyone who pulls them over that the cannabis plants in the back of their truck are, in fact, hemp.
Currently trying to understand the difference between processing and cultivation. I understand cultivators can grow and dry. Where is the hard line for cultivators? Most wholesale buyers want a specific part of the plant (the trim, the flower, or the stem).. so does trimming/ separating trim, flower, stem for wholesale classify you as a processor? Or is it only the act of packaging these into a consumer product that constitutes a processor license?
so if i just want to grow 1 or two hemp plants for personal non-thc use? i have to pay $500 for a license to do so? If this it true? Ohio has terrible laws. Fascist laws, everything to slow or screw over hemp/ cannabis for the pharm-x profit.
You got that right