Crops



2020 Farm Science Review Virtual Research Plot tour continued – Poultry litter use

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff.

The Ohio State University Extension, Agronomic Crops Team and the e-Fields Program had a number of research plots once again at the Molly Caren Agricultural Center in 2020. The online Review gave guests a number of opportunities to take a virtual plot tour and learn more about the ongoing research. The virtual plot tour was sponsored by the Ohio Soybean Council.

The use of poultry litter as a source of nutrients in crop production has increased in recent years as farmers have realized the additional benefits it brings in the micro-nutrients and biological components it contains. In order to maximize these benefits, proper application is necessary. Proper application includes calibrating the spreader in order to apply the correct amount to achieve the desired agronomic results while still protecting the environment.

As part of the 2020 Farm Science Review Virtual Plot Tour, a session was held on Soil manure spreader calibration and poultry litter application.

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2020 Farm Science Review Virtual Research Plot tour

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

The OSU Extension, Agronomic Crops Team and the e-Fields Program had a number of research plots once again at the Molly Caren Agricultural Center in 2020. The online review gave guests a number of opportunities to take a virtual plot tour and learn more about the ongoing research. The virtual plot tour was sponsored by the Ohio Soybean Council.

Strip intercropping was the focus of one plot on the virtual tour. This is a practice that involves growing corn and soybeans in alternating strips within the same field. Preliminary findings were that the strip intercropping practice increased yield, and decreased soil compaction.

Remote Sensing was the focus of another series of plots. Remote sensing is the science of acquiring information about an object or phenomenon by measuring the emitted and reflected radiation. Drone flying over an Ohio soybean field with stinger platform suspended beneath.Remote sensing data can be collected in four primary ways: land-based, UAV’s, airplanes, or satellites.

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H2Ohio streamlines approval process for VNMPs

The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) and the Ohio Agribusiness Association (OABA) are joining forces to streamline the approval process of Voluntary Nutrient Management Plans (VNMP) for farmers participating in the H2Ohio water quality initiative to reduce phosphorus runoff into Lake Erie.

On Sept. 3, 2020, ODA Director, Dorothy Pelanda, appointed two ODA staff members, Kip Studer and Peter McDonough, to work in partnership with OABA and Ohio’s Soil and Water Conservation Districts to approve VNMPs that have been developed as part of the 4R Nutrient Stewardship Certification Program.

First launched in the Spring of 2014, the 4R Nutrient Stewardship Certification Program is a proactive, responsible commitment aimed at the long-term improvement of water quality. This voluntary, annual third-party auditor verified program provides a consistent, recognized standard for agricultural retailers, nutrient service providers and other certified professionals in the state of Ohio. This approach provides a science-based framework for plant nutrition management and sustained crop production, while considering specific individual farms’ needs.… Continue reading

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Harvest technology preparation

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

As harvest season 2020 is just getting underway across the state, Dr. John Fulton, Professor and Extension Specialist in Ohio State’s Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department says that getting all the technology checked out before going to the field will make processing harvest data easier this winter.

Dr. John Fulton, The Ohio State University

Good data collection is necessary for making informed management decisions in the future. “When we think about yield monitors, and the data they collect, the first step each fall is to make sure the data on the display from previous seasons has been retrieved, and archived or backed-up to ensure nothing is lost,” said Fulton. “We encourage farmers to move it from the thumb drive or card used to retrieve it and stored on a laptop or a hard drive or storage space to make sure it is securely stored.”

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H2Ohio reminder for nutrient applications

By Glen Arnold, Ohio State University Extension

Harvest is starting and farmers participating in the H2Ohio program are reminded that any fall fertilizer applications, including manure, need to be approved by their local Soil & Water Conservation Districts. This will assure the application is in compliance with their Voluntary Nutrient Management Plan and there will be no problems with the payment process.

Many farmers will be working with their local fertilizer dealerships for fertilizer recommendations, but it is still a requirement to get approval from your local Soil and Water Conservation District before the fertilizer or manure is applied.… Continue reading

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Last Chance: Act Now to Update PLC Yields

By Clint Schroeder, Ohio State University Extension Educator

Landowners or producers with a Power of Attorney for their landowner have until September 30, 2020 to update their Price Loss Coverage (PLC) yield, also referred to as farm yield, information on file with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA). PLC yields exist for each FSA farm number and commodity. This one-time opportunity to update yield information for covered commodities was a provision in the 2018 Farm Bill. The updated yields will be used to calculate payments under the PLC program for the 2020 through 2023 crop years if market prices trigger payments. PLC yields have also been used before in disaster relief programs. There is no guarantee that farmers will have this opportunity again under future farm bills. If a farm chooses to not update their yield info the existing yields for the farm will be used.… Continue reading

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We need to reflect back on what we learned this year

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension

I think we screwed up the 2020 cropping season in 2018 and 2019. I hope the yield estimates we saw in OCJ in August hold up. Matt always goes back and checks with the growers at harvest, this year with the virtual tour I hope we can still check those actual yields against the estimates. At any rate the screw ups we did in 2018 and 2019 were a bit out of our control… meaning we were too wet when we harvested in 2018 and too wet when we planted in 2019 — and that led to a lot of surface compaction, and probably some deeper compaction, too. To follow that up we had a mild winter in 2019-2020 so we saw limited freeze-thaw to take away some of those compaction issues. I do not suggest tillage this fall, generally, to solve the problem.… Continue reading

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Fall soil sampling?

By Greg LaBarge and Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension

Simply put, the goal of soil sampling is to make a fertilizer recommendation for crop production.

  • To provide that recommendation, calibration studies are done to measure crop response.
  • For Ohio, the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations provide the calibration study history for recommendation development. For 2020 we just rolled out the latest “Tri-State” recommendations.

It’s about statistics. We want to take a representative sample, meaning that the sample should represent the fertility level of the area we sampled.

  • Choose sample areas in the field that have similar crop yields, crop rotation histories, fertilizer application methods and sources of applied nutrient.
  • Fields or field areas with a history of livestock production (a former pasture, had manure applications or produced hay) or other unique characteristics may require a different sampling strategy.
  • Field areas represented by any single sample should not be greater than 25 acres.
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University/industry partnership takes field scouting to the next level

It’s no secret that farming has become increasingly high-tech, but a partnership between The Ohio State University and an Ohio agribusiness is taking things even further with new field scouting technology that involves a drone and artificial intelligence (AI).

The Molly Caren Agricultural Center, home to the annual Farm Science Review (FSR), is no stranger to implementing new technology and best practices to optimize production and, more importantly, serving as a resource for Ohio and regional producers.

Due to COVID-19 restrictions, FSR 2020 will be a three-day virtual show held Sept. 22–24 at fsr.osu.edu. Although the center is closed to the public, Molly Caren Ag Center farm manager Nate Douridas and his team have been conducting various research projects to ensure that Ohio remains at the forefront of agricultural innovation.

In partnership with Integrated Ag Services, a local agribusiness based in Milford Center, a new high-definition field scouting program is being studied using a drone equipped with AI software.… Continue reading

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Visit the Agronomic Crops Team at the (Virtual) Farm Science Review on September 22-24th

By Amanda Douridas, Mary Griffith, Jason Hartschuh, CCA, Elizabeth Hawkins, Ohio State University Extension

This year the Farm Science Review will be virtual for the first time in its nearly 60 year history. The virtual show takes place on September 22-24th and includes many livestreamed educational sessions and demonstrations, as well as recorded videos. The show is free to attend with a simple registration process. To register, start at fsr.osu.edu and click on the red box that will take you to the My Show Planner. For registration guidance, check out this quick video that demonstrates the process.

The Agronomic Crops Team will be at the virtual Farm Science Review and available to discuss agronomy related issues with visitors through a virtual portal. Once you have registered to attend the Farm Science Review, you can find the Agronomic Crops Team here. The main activities hosted by the Agronomic Crops Team include:

Virtual Agronomic Plots Tour: This year the Agronomic Crops Plots were planted as always, and visitors can take a 360 virtual reality tour of the plots.… Continue reading

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The legalities of noxious weeds

The legalities of noxious weeds

By Ellen Essman, Ohio Law Blog, Agricultural & Resource Law Program at The Ohio State University

We have been receiving many questions about noxious weeds lately. This is meant to be a refresher about what you should do if noxious weeds sprout up on your property.

What are noxious weeds?

The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) is in charge of designating “prohibited noxious weeds.” The list may change from time to time, but currently, noxious weeds include:

  • Shatter cane (Sorghum bicolor)
  •  Russian thistle (Salsola Kali var. tenuifolia).
  • Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense ).
  •  Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa).
  • Grapevines (Vitis spp.), when growing in groups of one hundred or more and not pruned, sprayed, cultivated, or otherwise maintained for two consecutive years.
  • Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense ).
  • Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).
  •  Cressleaf groundsel (Senecio glabellus).
  • Musk thistle (Carduus nutans).
  • Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).
  • Mile-A-Minute Weed (Polygonum perfoliatum).
  • Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum).
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Cover Crop Champions & Cover Crop Driving Tour

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader: a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff.

Cover Crop Champions is an educational initiative funded through a grant from the National Wildlife Federation. There are two Cover Crop Champions programs in Ohio.  One is in the northwest corner of the state, and the other is located in west central Ohio.

The program in Northwest Ohio is being overseen by the Conservation Action Project (CAP). CAP was started in 1988 and serves the seven-county corner of Northwest Ohio which includes: Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry, Fulton, Wood, and Lucas. The governing board is made up of farmers, ag retailers, and agency personnel with the goal of working to help farmers and ag retailers implement conservation practices in an economically sustainable way.

Abby Wensink is the coordinator of CAP, and is administering the Cover Crop Champions grant. Cover Crop Champions utilizes the knowledge of area farmers who are experienced with cover crops.

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Fall harvest tips

By John Fulton (FABE Associate Professor) and Elizabeth Hawkins (Extension Specialist)

Fall harvest is here and is one of the more exciting times of the year on the farm. Spending time sitting in the combine cab or delivering grain can be fun. However, harvest also brings about the opportunity to collect yield and other data from fields that can be valuable when evaluating individual fields for the year. Today, there is a lot of data collected throughout the growing season that can be beneficial as one evaluates each field and the impactful variables on yield and profit.

We would all like to see over 300 bushels of corn and 80 bushels per acre of soybeans consistently displayed on the yield monitor across an entire field. This year that will not happen as yield variability within and between fields is likely to be quite high for the 2020 harvest. However, to work towards reaching yield and profit goals, it is important to collect data that is beneficial for the farm operation to use during post-harvest evaluation.… Continue reading

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Tips for harvest and planning for 2021

By Dr. Anne Dorrance, Ohio State University Extension Plant Pathology, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2018-33

The 2020 Soybean harvest has started in Ohio.  The following items are things to keep track of as the combines run across the fields to help evaluate the 2020 crop and plan for 2021.

  • Make note of those low yield spots in soybeans to soil sample for soybean cyst nematode levels.
  • Did you leave unsprayed strips?  Harvest each of these first separately.  Yield is not even throughout a field so comparisons to the average of these unsprayed strips are a more accurate measure of what the baseline level of yield is within a field.  This is the number to compare yields for any treatments. Note: the outside borders of the field are usually not comparable since these have additional secondary factors such as shade from trees, compaction, old fence rows etc. which can impact yield.
  • Fields with Sclerotinia should be harvested last. 
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Western Ohio cropland values and cash rents 2019-20

By Barry Ward, Leader, Production Business Management, Director, OSU Income Tax Schools, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, OSU Extension

Ohio cropland varies significantly in its production capabilities and, consequently, cropland values and cash rents vary widely throughout the state. Generally speaking, western Ohio cropland values and cash rents differ from much of eastern Ohio and parts of southern Ohio cropland values and cash rents. The primary factors affecting these values and rates are land productivity and potential crop return, and the variability of those crop returns. Soils and drainage capabilities are the two factors that heavily influence land productivity, crop return and variability of those crop returns.

Other factors impacting land values and cash rents may include buildings and grain storage, field size and shape, field accessibility, market access, local market prices, field perimeter characteristics and potential for wildlife damage, previous tillage system and crops, tolerant/resistant weed populations, population density, USDA Program Yields, and competition for the cropland in a region.… Continue reading

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EPA denies of gap-year waiver petitions

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denied 54 of 68 pending past-year (2011-2018) small refinery exemptions (SREs), or waivers, to oil refiners. An additonal 14 gap-year waivers remain under required review at the Department of Energy (DOE). The EPA also has 31 waivers under consideration for 2019 and 2020 Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) compliance years.

“Asking for waivers for nearly ten years ago was a new low by the oil industry to undermine the RFS and rewrite history. Denying these petitions was the obvious answer and farmers are pleased to begin to move past this distraction. We thank our bipartisan supporters in Congress, including Senator Ernst, for their advocacy in upholding the RFS,” said the National Corn Growers Association in a statement. “While denial of these past-year waivers is obviously positive news for farmers and biofuel producers, we’re never going to have the certainty we need until the underlying waiver issue is fully resolved.”… Continue reading

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Soil moisture and 2020 corn

By Matt Reese

Ohio’s corn crop has faced everything from a little too wet to hot and dry this growing season and evidence of those challenges is likely going to be showing up in some fields during harvest, said Brad Miller, technical agronomist for DEKALB Asgrow.

“This spring we had some wet conditions after planting that persisted. The good news is that many of the places that were unable to plant last year were able to get a nice, early start and got their acres planted. In some of those instances, though, wet ground conditions persisted after planting which led to some stand establishment issues,” Miller said. “We have had some dry conditions through July, and for corn planted a little too wet, those root systems could be compromised. That may impact yield potential.”

High temperatures and long stretches with limited rainfall in July also set some fields up for pollination challenges.… Continue reading

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Scout now for cressleaf groundsel in hayfields, or pay the price in May

By Mark Loux, Ohio State University Extension

Some hay producers have been unpleasantly surprised in the past when cressleaf groundsel infestations became evident in their hay fields in May prior to first cutting. Cressleaf groundsel in hay or silage is toxic to animals, and infested areas of the field should not be harvested and fed. Groundsel is a winter annual, emerging in late summer into fall, when it develops into a rosette that overwinters. Growth restarts in spring, with stem elongation and an eventual height of up to several feet tall. The weed becomes evident in hay fields when in becomes taller than the alfalfa/grass and develops bright yellow flowers in May. The problem with passively waiting until this point to discover that the hay is infested with groundsel is that: 1) it’s too late to control it with herbicides; and 2) hay from infested areas has to be discarded instead of sold or fed, and large plant skeletons are still toxic even if herbicides were effective on them.… Continue reading

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September is the time to get ready to plant wheat

By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

I will admit I have not done much wheat work since the 1980s but I observe that many producers who do grow wheat are happy with their results — from the economic side by having three crops in a rotation and from the ability to do additional practices in the field after wheat harvest. Some benefits to having a summer fallow field are:

  • the application of manure,
  • to install tile,
  • the opportunity to do some deeper tillage or some levelling, and maybe to do some fertility adjustments along with that tillage,
  • to cleaning up perennial weeds (although this has been accomplished with RoundupReady crops too),
  • add a cover crop in the rotation and really have an impact on nitrogen accumulation or to build soil health,
  • or even to double-crop soybeans.

What are best management practices for growing wheat in Ohio?

Variety selection is of utmost importance.… Continue reading

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Drought and herbicide carryover

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

The 2020 summer was hotter and drier than normal for most farms, so herbicide carryover will be a major issue for planting cover crops.  Herbicides degrade based on soil temperature, rainfall, time of application, organic matter, soil type, soil pH, and sunlight.  Generally, microbially active soils break down herbicides quickly.  Moisture is critical for microbe activity, so drought or dry summers means slower herbicide breakdown.  High soil temperatures can also reduce microbial activity and herbicide breakdown.  High soil microbial activity occurs between 75-850F but once soil temperatures get above 900F, generally microbial activity declines.  On bare soils, the soil temperatures in the top inch may reach 110-1400F on a hot sunny day, greatly reducing microbial activity and herbicide breakdown.

Mark Loux OSU Extension Weed Scientist
Dr. Mark Loux, OSU Extension Weed Scientist

Herbicide application timing also determines herbicide degradation.  Herbicides applied in the spring or early summer have a longer time to break down. 

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