Agronomy Notebook

Handling storage of mycotoxin infested grain

By Luke Schulte, CCA, Beck’s field agronomist

Unfortunately, many farmers observed ear molds throughout harvest, leading to some level of mycotoxins in the grain. While the abnormally dry weather this fall has helped minimize the severity of these toxins, many fields still had some level of ear mold and toxins present that now resides in farm storage bins. The management of that stored grain can potentially significantly impact the mycotoxin level and potential discount fees associated with that grain as it is hauled out.

For farmers who observed ear molds at harvest but store 100% of their crop, the presence of mycotoxins may not be known yet. I’d encourage those in this situation to take the time now to get a representative grain sample to better understand the potential for toxins and the required management that may be beneficial in the coming months.

Since most of the mycotoxins reside in the fines and bees’ wings, minimizing these components within storage is critical.… Continue reading

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A year of many agronomic challenges

By Mitch Greve, AgriGold  

Many producers in Ohio experienced a unique set of challenges in 2022 including: delayed planting, poor emergence, drought and water stress, disease, stalk rots, and ear molds to name a few. It is important for every grower to reflect on factors impacting their crop. These issues that hindered top end performance this year can be used for learning lessons for future growing seasons.

Mitch Greve, AgriGold

Planting for success starts with good, uniform soil moisture and temperature, seed-to-soil contact, and accurate delivery of seed from the planter to the soil. Most growers across the state did not have all three critical components. Weather was less than favorable in the early going resulting in later planting dates. Later planting dates, such as June planted corn, have a decreased window to capture sunlight and create energy and thereby places more emphasis on growth as compared to maintenance of the corn crop.… Continue reading

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Identification and management of corn ear molds

By Ryan Klamfoth, Pioneer field agronomist

The recent cool weather has delayed corn maturation and harvest. Additionally, the lower temperatures create an ideal environment for development of ear molds. The four most common types of corn ear molds in Ohio include: Aspergillus, Diplodia, Fusarium, and Gibberella. 

These fungal pathogens survive in the soil and on crop residue allowing them to infect developing corn ears. When the proper moisture and weather conditions are present, the silks become infected by the fungal spores. The amount of ear mold present within a field can be impacted by the interaction of planting date, hybrid maturity, and rainfall/humidity during grain fill. Scoring hybrid differences are extremely difficult since the infection is very situational and often a severity scale at one location is completely inverted at another location. 

Although this infection occurs at silking, the mold is often not present until the middle or end of grain fill stages.… Continue reading

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What do your soil test numbers mean?

By Greg LaBarge, CCA, Ohio State University Extension

Harvest is quickly followed by soil sampling. Soon after samples are submitted to the lab, we have a bunch of numbers to make sense of to decide our nutrient plan for the next 1 to 2 crops. The soil test numbers help us understand soil nutrient holding and exchange capacity, the need for lime, and if we should invest in fertilizer.

Some soil test report information helps us understand the soil’s natural ability to retain and supply nutrients such as organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). 

Organic matter (OM): OM plays an essential role in nutrient cycling and retention. OM accumulation in uncultivated soils is impacted by moisture and temperature due to their influence on plant growth and soil microbes.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC): CEC measures the capacity of the soil to hold exchangeable cations (positively charged ions). We report CEC as milliequivalents (meq) per 100 grams of soil.… Continue reading

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Green stem syndrome in soybeans

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, Seed Consultants, Inc.

One issue that impacts soybean harvest in the eastern Corn Belt at some level each year is green stem syndrome. Green stem syndrome could be larger a issue for the 2022 harvest because of later planting dates in many areas. When green stem syndrome occurs, stems and leaves can remain green after pods have matured. As a result, while pods and seeds are mature and dry enough to be harvested, harvest operations can be slowed as combines have more difficulty dealing with stems and leaves that are still green. In addition to creating harvest delays, green stem syndrome can increase fuel consumption and result in shattering losses if growers delay harvest until stems have fully matured.

The occurrence of green stems varies from year-to-year and can be affected by several factors, such as: 
• Viral infections 
• Insect feeding 
• Late planting 
• Drought stress 
• Application of fungicides

Successful management of green stem syndrome requires management practices that include timely planting, establishing adequate plant stands, irrigation, and controlling insects/pests.… Continue reading

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Adapting to the uncertainty with crop inputs

By Luke Schulte, CCA, Beck’s Field Agronomist

In this time of unusually high input prices and commodity price uncertainty, crop input selection has become even more crucial.  

Often, as we feel pressure to tighten our belts regarding input decisions, we resort to scrutinizing those inputs that are less visual and believed to be less impactful. For example, altering our herbicide program or lowering the amount of applied nitrogen will often visually show the impact of our decision. That said, managing soil fertility is one of those inputs that “pulling back” is not as obvious as the impact.

Over the years, annual rainfall accumulation throughout the eastern U.S. has increased modestly. However, the intensity of our rain has increased dramatically. As difficult as recent springs have been to complete field work, climatologists project spring precipitation to continue to increase as well. Currently, we are faced with rising fertilizer prices, more violent rain events, fewer spring days to complete fieldwork, and sustained periods with limited soil oxygen.… Continue reading

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Moisture provides optimism, but look for lodging

By Todd Jeffries, Vice President, Seed Genetics Direct

Speaking to a plethora of growers across Ohio, 2022 has been a rollercoaster. Some areas had perfect conditions and were able to get the crop in the ground, only to have it get hammered with five inches of rain 24 to 48 hours after planting. Other areas struggled to get a crop planted and many growers had to take actions they were not proud of, like mudding the crop in because it was June and they needed to get something planted. We can plan and have best practices all we want, but we need Mother Nature to cooperate. 

Todd Jeffries, Seed Genetics Direct

While we may not have the record yields across Ohio as we did last year, we still need to do everything we can to protect plants and yield. Hopefully by now, you’ve scouted your fields, applied fungicide and insecticide if you needed it, and have been diligent in keeping the weed-pressure at bay. … Continue reading

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Night temperatures key for corn yields

By Roy A. Ulrich, Technical Agronomist, Dekalb & Asgrow, Southern Ohio

“So, what do you think this corn and bean crop will yield?” 

This is the most commonly asked question of agronomists at field days during the month of August. Usually, the most common response from an agronomist is, “Well, it depends.” Then this is quickly followed by a synopsis of the growing season, either slanted towards a positive yield outcome or a less than favorable one, but with the caveat and easy out of “there is a lot of yield still to be built in the month of August.” So, with that thought in mind, let’s examine one of the main drivers in corn yield production in the month of August that none of us have control over: the weather. Of specific concern at the time are temperatures — not the daytime high temperatures of the mid 90s we saw in the middle of the month, but the high nighttime temperatures. … Continue reading

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Accelerating soybean yields

By Alexandra Stinemetz and Kyle Poling, Pioneer field agronomists

Soybean was brought to the United States in the late 1800s or early 1900s, first as a forage crop. Farmers soon learned that the protein from the seed was a much better feed supplement for livestock than feeding the whole plant. Growing soybean gained in popularity in the 1940s and is now the second largest row crop (based on acreage) in the country.

Plant breeding has significantly increased the yield potential in modern-day soybean varieties. Yield improvements in soybean is focused on (1) producing more seeds per acre and (2) larger seeds on each plant. In the process of selecting higher yielding varieties, soybean breeders have improved disease tolerance, stress tolerance, and altered growth patterns compared to older varieties. 

Today’s varieties spend 7 to 10 less days in vegetative growth and nearly 2 weeks more in the reproductive stages. This change in soybean growth habit has provided huge opportunities for increased yield compared to “the varieties that Grandpa grew.”… Continue reading

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Scouting for disease

By Jason Hartschuh, CCA, Agricultural and Natural Resources Educator, Ohio State University, Extension Crawford County

Q: We had tar spot bad in our area last year should we be planning to spray all of our corn acres this year?

A: Tar spot treatment, like with all other diseases, should rely on a strong scouting program. The risk is higher this year, especially in continuous corn, but we also have to have favorable environmental conditions. In fields where corn is following soybeans or wheat, the risk is slightly lower but if favorable conditions develop, spores may move in from other areas. With all diseases, scouting is critical to determining if a fungicide needs to be applied. Lesions will be small, black, raised spots appearing on both sides of the leaves along with leaf sheaths and husks. Spots may be on green or brown, dying tissue. Spots on green tissue may have tan or brown halos. Once tar spot is identified, fields should be monitored every 7 to 10 days for incidence levels to increase, even if a fungicide is applied.… Continue reading

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Maximize remaining yield potential in 2022

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, Product Manager, Seed Consultants, Inc.

The 2022 growing season has already provided growers with several challenges. Learning from these challenges and making sound management decisions throughout the remainder of the growing season will be critical to achieving top-end yield potential. 

Adverse weather conditions have significantly impacted planting date, emergence, and early crop development. While early planting favors high yields, it does not guarantee them. Even with delayed planting growers can still achieve high yields depending on several other factors. The key to achieving top-end yield potential will be sound management decisions moving forward.

Not only have adverse spring field conditions impacted planning and early crop development, but some issues that exist as a result of the wet weather will linger throughout the season. Seedlings have struggled to get established in crusted soils, saturated soils, and flooded areas of fields. Compaction, root restrictions, and damage to plants will hinder crop development throughout the growing season.… Continue reading

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A look at contest practices to bump up soybean yields

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA (Adapted from Crop & Soils Magazine, July-August 2021)

Names like Kip Cullers from Stark City, MO, or Randy Dowdy from Pravo, GA are legends in soybean yield contests. In 2010, Cullers raised 160.6 bushel per acre soybeans. In 2019, Dowdy raised 190 bushel per acre contest soybeans. While many sales agronomists have worked alongside of Cullers, Dowdy and other top soybean producers across the country, academia has not thoroughly evaluated the production until recently.

An examination of high-yield practices was undertaken by Larry Purcell, University of Arkansas soybean physiologist, Distinguished Professor of Crop Physiology and Altheimer Chair for Soybean Research. Also in 2020, Shawn Conley, University of Wisconsin-Madison professor and Extension soybean and small-grain specialist and the North Central Soybean Research Program soybean agronomist, and 12 other university agronomists participated in a large collaborative research SOYA project to investigate a high-input system’s impact on soybean yield and profitability.… Continue reading

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Effectively feeding a high-value crop, even with high fertilizer prices

By Luke Schulte, CCA, Beck’s Field Agronomist

For many reasons, fertilizer prices have been on the rise for some time. Due to significantly higher pricing, some farmers may have opted to apply less or perhaps skip dry fertilizer applications all together. However, adequate nutrition is fundamental to maximizing yield potential and is increasingly important to profitability in this time of high commodity prices.

Foliar nutrition products are often labeled “snake oils.” While some foliar products haven’t been consistent, it is important to recognize that it is not as simple as prescribing a product containing the nutrients the soil or crop lacks. Relative to dry fertilizer, the volume of nutrients in a foliar feed program is minute. Therefore, it is imperative to focus on successfully getting the low volume of nutrition into the plant to capitalize on its’ efficiency. The inclusion of the following components into a foliar program will lead to a greater likelihood of plant uptake.… Continue reading

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Managing nitrogen in 2022

By Roy Ulrich, technical agronomist for Dekalb and Asgrow, Southern Ohio

Adequate rates of nitrogen available to a corn plant during the entire growing season is a foundation to a successful harvest. This fact is foundational that Fred Below from the University of Illinois in his “Seven Wonders of the Corn Yield World” ranked nitrogen as the second most important factor in corn yield, only to be outdone by weather. 

If nitrogen is that critical to a successful crop, then what is the correct rate of nitrogen for an acre of corn? The old school approach would be to take a yield goal and multiply it by 1.25 pounds  per bushel so a 250-bushel per acre yield goal would require an application rate of 312 pounds per acre of nitrogen. As most know, nitrogen isn’t quite this simple and isn’t this cut and dry when it comes to final yield. 

When it comes to actual nitrogen rates, like most good agronomy answers, when it comes to nitrogen needed “it depends” is the correct answer.… Continue reading

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Purple corn?

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, product manager, Seed Consultants, Inc. 

One phenomenon that commonly occurs at the early stages of the growing season is the appearance of purple cornplants. Corn plants can turn purple for several reasons related to environmental factors such as:

• Sunny days and cool nights (temps in the 40s to 50s F) 
• Soil pH lower than 5.5 
• Cool temperatures 
• Wet soil 
• Stresses that hinder the uptake of phosphorus 
• Herbicide injury 
• Soil compaction.

Because many fields have saturated soils and the forecast includes cooler nighttime temperatures, producers may see some purple plants in their fields. Purpling in corn due to cooler weather most often occurs when plants are in the V2 to V5 growth stages. Because of diverse genetics, hybrids react differently to early stress and some will exhibit purpling while others will not. Anyone who has walked a test plot to observe early plant vigor or has split their planter between two hybrids has probably seen a side-by-side comparison where one hybrid turned purple while the other did not.… Continue reading

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Managing your crop’s yield potential 

By Mitch Greve, Agrigold agronomist – Ohio

Managing your crop’s yield potential starts with having patience and a detail-oriented plan heading into planting. Furthermore, as the planting season comes to an end it is essential to spend time in the field with the crop. Scouting corn and soybeans from emergence to harvest can help manage the crop’s yield potential. Monitoring weather patterns and a keen eye can help write your yield story. 

A yield story can be broken down into four chapters; emergence scoring, nutrient deficiencies, disease and heat stress, and late season plant health. 

Emergence score and plant vigor 

Within the first few weeks of planting corn and soybeans it is ideal to scout for emergence and plant vigor. Early season scouting will inform how many plants emerged as compared to intended stand, which we refer to as emergence percentage. Having a high emergence percentage is the best-case scenario, but sometimes weather, and biological or mechanical implications can lower that percentage.… Continue reading

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Corn leaf diseases to watch for in 2022

By Dave Nanda, Ph.D. Director of Genetics for Seed Genetics Direct
It is almost impossible to develop resistance to all of the prevalent diseases while developing new varieties. The disease organisms are constantly changing and by the time breeders develop new varieties resistant to certain disease organism, the pathogens mutate and change. In order to maximize the potential yield of crops, farmers need to also protect them from diseases. Fungicides is one way to do so. 

Dave Nanda

Depending on the spring weather and past experience, there are leaf diseases which might develop and dominate in July and August, most of the which are caused by the fungal organisms.

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) can get started from the residue of previous crops which may provide the initial inoculum and is further spread by airborne spores. It likes cool, wet and humid weather. NCLB produces long, cigar shaped lesions which are grayish to tan in color.… Continue reading

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Be sure to monitor soil temperatures

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, Product Manager, Seed Consultants, Inc. 

Soil temperature is a critical part of successful corn and soybean germination. For seed to begin the germination process, soil temps must be at least 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Prior to planting early in the spring, it is important to monitor soil temperatures and wait to plant until soil warms up enough to promote quick germination and emergence. Soil temperatures should be in the 50s and expected to continue to rise.

It is also important to keep in mind that soil temperatures can fluctuate relatively quickly. For example, soil temps in southern Ohio were in the mid 40s Wednesday, April 20. With warmer weather and sunshine they had climbed to above 60 degrees on Saturday, April 23. Although soil temps have warmed up enough to plant due to a weekend of 80 degree weather, keep in mind soil temps can drop below 50 just as quickly if we have a cold rain event.… Continue reading

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Agronomic resiliency in 2022

By John Schoenhals, Pioneer Field Agronomist, Northern Ohio

Resiliency is defined as the ability to recover quickly from difficulties or “toughness.” Lately, this term has been used quite often. Electric grid resiliency is used following hurricanes and storm outbreaks. Economic resiliency is discussed following the COVID-19 pandemic and mandated shutdowns. The resilience of underdogs competing against juggernauts in March madness basketball has been another recent topic.  

John Schoenhals, Pioneer Field Agronomist in northern Ohio

In 2022, “resiliency” is the goal of every farmer planting or tending a crop. From sky-high fertilizer prices to pesticide availability to tar spot concerns to equipment and parts inventories, the buildup to the start of the 2022 growing season has been filled with remarkable, unparalleled, and in some cases, downright concerning headlines in the ag industry. In addition, global unrest and lingering weather concerns have led to historic volatility in the price of commodities. 

Against this backdrop, resilient growers will be those who are prepared with a plan, surrounded by trusted advisors, and willing to adapt to challenges.  The… Continue reading

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Managing for a high yielding 2022

By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, product manager, Seed Consultants, Inc.

With spring planting right around the corner, it is a good time to discuss key management practices and the impact they have on the growing season. You may have heard that the crop starts the season in the bag with its highest yield potential. That yield potential can be lost due to several factors throughout the season. While many factors leading to yield loss are out of our control (drought, disease development, insect pressure, etc.), it is important to properly manage the factors that can be controlled.  

Matt Hutcheson, product manager for Seed Consultants, Inc., talks to customers at a field day.

With the presence of herbicide-resistance weeds and the growing number of herbicide trait options, it is increasingly important for farmers to be well informed and meticulous in their weed control decisions. Knowing what weeds are present and which herbicides most effectively control them is a must.… Continue reading

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