Ohio Field Leader

Planting date and crop yields

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Every year, weather seems to play havoc with farmer’s desire to get crops planted timely.  Early planted crops generally have a yield advantage over late planted crops. Most crop yield is related to moisture  at pollination in both corn and soybeans.  So, even if crops are planted later than normal, good yields are possible if there is adequate summer moisture.  Usually, July rains have a big impact on corn yields, while August rains have more of an impact on soybean yields.

Dr. Emerson Nafziger, Photo Credit, University of Illinois Extension

With high crop prices, farmers are eager to start planting.  Cold wet spring often delay planting.   University of Illinois, Dr. Emerson Nafziger, offers some insights on corn and soybean planting dates and yield. Generally, there is about a 3-week window in Ohio for optimal planting which is between April 20th and May 10th. Planting after May 10th on average results in about a 0.3% yield loss per day corn planting is delayed and by the end of May, this loss increases to 1% per day. 

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Spring SCN testing and a research opportunity for Ohio growers

By Horacio Lopez-Nicora, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2022-13

KNOW YOUR SCN NUMBERS, OHIO!

While it is important to know about the presence of SCN in a field, it is more important to know the SCN numbers. It will determine the best management strategy. It is important, therefore, to Test your Fields to Know your SCN Numbers.

In the spring, either before or at planting, is a good time to sample for SCN.

Soybean cyst nematode eggs (note SCN juvenile inside eggs). Photo Credit, The Ohio State University

A soil test in spring will reveal if SCN is present and if so, at what levels. If you are planning to collect samples for soil fertility or participate in an on-farm trial that requires soil sampling, a subsample can be used for SCN testing  

With funding from the Ohio Soybean Council and The SCN Coalition we will process up to TWO soil samples, per grower, to be tested for SCN, free of charge.

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Soybean planting progress, emergence, and misconceptions

By Dr. Laura Lindsey, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2022-13

Recent wet weather across the state has slowed soybean planting progress, but should be picking up with warmer and dryer weather. As of the last week of April, 2% of the soybean acres in Ohio were planted. Last year at the same time, 17% of soybean acres were planted. However, 2018 through 2020, planting progress was similar at 1-2%.

Table 1. Percent soybean acres planted in Ohio by week for the past five years (USDA NASS).

As soybean planting continues and plants emerge, here are some things to look for as well as some common misconceptions from soybean extension specialists across the U.S.

What Matters at Planting and Emergence: At this point in the growing season, obtaining a stand of sufficient plant population is the first step in ensuring maximum soybean yield. It is important to seed at a rate that will provide an adequate and relatively uniform stand.

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First time no-tillers

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

As the national price of diesel fuel averages around $5.40 per gallon, many farmers are considering no-tilling both soybeans and corn for the first time. Also, due to wet weather and a late planting window, getting crop seed in the ground becomes even more important.  Here are a few tips that may help improve your first year no-till crop yields.

First, scout your fields. Weeds like purple dead nettle, henbit, dandelion, chickweed, yellow rocket, ragweed and marestail can be problems and require a good burndown herbicide.

Marestail

Most farmers will use glyphosate (Roundup®)but remember that as a chelator, glyphosate ties up many micronutrients, especially iron, manganese, zinc, and copper, so minimize it use.

Second, check for slugs and other pests, especially in weedy fields. Ferroyx® is a new slug bait that has a 40-day residual.  The pellets are very small and the slugs ingest it. 

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Biological nutrient uptake

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services, adapted from “Solubility versus Biology” by  Lawrence Mayhew.

Regenerative farming practices emphasize nutrient uptake from soils through natural soil biological cycles.  This ecologically‐based agricultural approach uses microbes and carbon compounds to produce crops naturally rather than relying entirely on highly soluble “salty” nutrient inputs for plant nutrition.

Jim Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Before commercial synthetic fertilizer, historically, soil microbes provided about 80% of soil nitrogen (N) through the efficient process of microbial N fixation. However, soil compaction and over‐use of nitrogen fertilizers are having a negative impact on N fixing microbes. For the first time, the total fixed N supplied by microbes is less than the amount of applied synthetic N from fertilizer.  Excess salt based or soluble fertilizer is disrupting the natural soil balance.

Soil microbe interact with plant roots and soil minerals to releases plant nutrients from soil minerals. Biological release of plant nutrients has far greater potential for plant mineral uptake than relying entirely on soluble nutrients from fertilizer.

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Imbibitional chilling — Is it a concern?

By Alexander LindseyLaura LindseyOsler Ortez, PhD, Ohio State University Extension

Warmer temperatures combined with the excitement (and need) to get crops in the ground triggered planting around the state last week (April 18 to April 24) or even before. With some warm days without much precipitation forecasted this week (April 25 to May 1), planting will continue. However, cold temperatures and precipitation after planting can cause imbibitional chilling, and this is something that we should certainly be aware of (watch for!). 

Imbibitional chilling may occur in corn and soybean seeds if the soil temperature is below 50 degrees F when the seed imbibes (rapidly takes up water from the soil, usually within 24 hours after planting). Imbibitional chilling can cause reductions in stand and seedling vigor. If seeds were planted into soil with at least 50 degrees F of temperature and adequate moisture (at least 40-50% plant available water) for at least one day, the drop in temperature is not likely to lead to imbibitional chilling issues.… Continue reading

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Manage soybeans to push profits

Pam Smith, DTN Crop Technology Editor

By Pamela Smith, DTN Crops Technology Editor

Taking soybean production to the next level requires a different thought process. DTN asked Greg McClure and his son, Cameron, who farm near St. Francisville, Illinois, to outline some of the changes they’ve made during the past few years.

The father-son duo has been participating in AgriGold’s Yield Masters program to explore opportunities and barriers to increasing soybean efficiency. Here’s a snapshot of their soybean-management journey.

Q: What’s been your crop rotation, and is that changing?

A: Until 2017, we continually planted 60% of our acres to corn with some fields having corn for 10 or more consecutive years. From 2017 through 2020, we tried to operate on a 50-50 ratio while rotating every acre between corn and beans annually. As demand has increased back toward soybean meal in many livestock diets and future demand for soybean oil to be used in biofuels, we decided in 2021 to pursue several acres of high-management bean-on-bean production.

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Rotate SCN-resistant seed varieties for optimal protection

Understanding the difference between soybean cyst nematode-resistant varieties may help soybean growers understand the importance of rotating sources of resistance, which is one of the “active SCN management” strategies advised by The SCN Coalition. For combating SCN during the 2022 growing season, The SCN Coalition encourages growers to work with their advisors to select the appropriate SCN-resistant varieties.

Melissa Mitchum, University of Georgia molecular nematologist

“Most soybean growers are familiar with PI 88788 and Peking, the two most widely used sources of resistance to soybean cyst nematode,” says Melissa Mitchum, University of Georgia molecular nematologist. “What might be news to growers is these different sources of SCN resistance have different resistance genes — also known as different modes of action.”

Simply speaking, resistance from the PI 88788 line contains one gene, Rhg1. Resistance from Peking contains two resistance genes, Rhg1 and Rhg4. “There are also different flavors — aka alleles — of the Rhg1 genes, which is where the A and B designations come into play,” Mitchum adds.

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Season-long game plan pushes soybeans through biology

By Pamela Smith, DTN Crops Technology Editor

Pam Smith, DTN Crop Technology Editor

Soybeans may have the reputation of being a fickle crop, but agronomist Dustin Bowling maintains they are merely misunderstood.

“Too often, we try to lump soybeans into the category of the corn plant. We know what has let us push the needle on corn yield, and we try that on soybeans,” said Bowling, Missouri-based agronomist for AgriGold. “We end up scratching our head because we have a hard time getting the soybean to react to those management tactics and chalk it up to the soybean being too stubborn. We tell ourselves it is going to do what it wants, no matter what we do.” 

Instead, he urges farmers to treat the soybean like a factory by adjusting management practices to meet the biological needs of the plant throughout the growing season.

“Think of it as providing everything that factory needs to keep the lights on and running efficiently all season long,” Bowling said.

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The Big 10 of Ohio agriculture

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean check-off

Agriculture is very important to Ohio’s economy. Annually the Food and Agriculture industry contributes more than $100 billion to the state’s economy, and accounts for 14% of the jobs in Ohio. One out of every seven workers in Ohio is employed in agriculture. The industry is constantly changing, and the challenges and opportunities facing agriculture are ever evolving. “We know that there are trends impacting our industry, and being aware of what is going on around us is important,” said Adam Sharp, Executive Vice President of the Ohio Farm Bureau Federation. “I have a list of ten things that are on my radar and on the radar of Ohio Farm Bureau.”

Technological revolution

“We are seeing a technological revolution in agriculture,” Sharp said. “This includes things like biotechnology, genetics, robotics, various sensors and remote access, data, data systems, and data protection.… Continue reading

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Know your SCN risks before planting soybeans back-to-back

Concerns about lofty input prices and the limited availability of fertilizer this spring have some corn growers planning to plant soybeans back-to-back. Experts with The SCN Coalition want soybean growers to consider the potential economic and agronomic impacts that could have in SCN-infested fields, especially after many experienced warmer growing conditions in 2021.

“SCN reproduction is greater in hot, dry growing seasons, and many soil samples collected at harvest from field

Greg Tylka, Iowa State University Nematologist. Photo Credit, Iowa State

experiments in Iowa in 2021 have very high end-of-season SCN population densities,” said Iowa State University nematologist Greg Tylka.

“Planting an SCN-resistant variety is a soybean grower’s first line of defense. But in many fields, SCN has become resistant to the resistance because the same source of SCN resistance, known as PI 88788, has been used in about 95% of SCN-resistant soybean varieties for decades.”

SCN research data is clear

Data from 15 years of variety trial experiments in growers’ fields in Iowa revealed that increased reproduction of SCN populations on PI 88788-resistant varieties can decrease yield by as much as 14 bushels per acre,1 which represents a 23% yield loss.

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Set-up soybeans for success in 2022

By Laura Lindsey, Ohio State University Extension State Soybean and Small Grains Specialist, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2022-09

For soybean, pre-planting decisions are extremely important to set-up the crop for success. Soybean Extension Specialists from across the U.S. have been working together on the Science for Success initiative (funded by United Soybean Board) focused on leveraging local expertise to provide national soybean best management practices. Recently, we’ve focused on soybean planting date, row spacing, and seeding rate.

Dr. Laura Lindsey, OSU Extension Soybean Specialist

Soybean planting date

Soybean planting date has a large effect on yield. In Ohio, yield reduction as a result of late planting ranges from 0.25 to 1.0 bushel per acre per day. In our small plot research in Clark County, Ohio, soybean yield reduction in 2013 and 2014 was approximately 0.6 bushel per acre per day for each day planted after early to mid-May. Although early planting is important to maximize soybean yield, deciding on when to plant should be based on field suitability and soil temperatures at the time of, and following, planting as well as frost forecast.

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New herbicides

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Glyphosate has been the top herbicide used in the USA since the 1990s when glyphosate resistant genes (genetically modified) were inserted into crops. Each year, farmers lose about $33 billion dollars in crop losses due to weeds. Over time, 514 unique weeds have developed resistance to 167 different herbicides in 94 crops in 71 countries. Conventional synthetic herbicides is a $27 billion dollar market in the USA. However, 41 countries and 25 states have either banned or restricted the use of glyphosate products.

The introduction of safer, new bio-herbicides using natural plant extracts is a distinct advantage for farmers, for consumers, and for the environment. These biocide herbicides offer new sites and modes of action to reduce weed resistance and can be used in organic and conventional agricultural fields. The worldwide bio-pesticide market is expected to reach $10.63 billion dollars by 2027. Government regulations, environmental risks to pollution, and consumer demand for organic produce are pushing manufacturers to invest in bio-research for these new products.… Continue reading

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EPA removes Ohio’s Enlist herbicide prohibitions

By Peggy Kirk Hall, director of agricultural law, Ohio State University Agricultural and Resource Law Program

When the U.S. EPA approved the seven-year renewal registration for Corteva’s Enlist One and Enlist Duo on January 12, 2022, it also prohibited use of the herbicide in 217 counties across the country. Twelve Ohio counties were on that list, preventing farmers in Athens, Butler, Fairfield, Guernsey, Hamilton, Hocking, Morgan, Muskingum, Noble, Perry, Vinton, and Washington counties from using the herbicides. Welcome news for those farmers came on Tuesday, when the EPA announced that it is removing the restricted use for all Ohio counties.

The prohibition against using Enlist Duo’s use was because Corteva did not propose its use in all U.S. counties in the reregistration, many of which had endangered species and critical habitat that could be impacted by the herbicides. The 12 Ohio counties that were not submitted for use by Corteva are home to the American Burying Beetle, which is on the Endangered Species list.… Continue reading

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Reducing off-target pesticide movement

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean check-off

Simply put, one of the primary goals of a spray applicator is to get the product on the target. While this sounds relatively straight forward, there are a number of factors that come into play. According to Erdal Ozkan, Professor in the Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering at The Ohio State University, factors that significantly influence the off-target movement of pesticides include wind velocity and direction, spray droplet size and density, and the distance between the spray tip and the target. Other factors include the velocity and direction of the spray droplet, volatility of the product being sprayed, air temperature, relative humidity, and turbulence. At the end of the day, if the product does not reach the target, the pesticide application will not be effective, and there may even be a situation of off-target pesticide movement that can injure adjacent crops or landscape plants.

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Preemergence mesotrione use in “mesotrione-tolerant” soybeans

By Mark Loux, Ohio State University Extension herbicide specialist

Put this one in the “we’re usually the last to know” category. Following an article in the last C.O.R.N. about the Alite 27 label for use on GT27 soybeans, we became aware that some mesotrione products are labeled for preemergence use on “mesotrione-tolerant” (GT27) soybeans. Products that we know about with this label include Bellum, Motif, and Meso Star. As far we know, all GT27 soybeans are tolerant of mesotrione used preemergence. The catch is that the seed tag and agreement need to specify that the variety is “mesotrione-tolerant” for this to be a legal application. At least this is how it was explained to us by one reputable company rep. Not every company selling GT27 seed has made this change, so check with seed supplier if in doubt. Basics of this label are as follows:

• use prior to soybean emergence only and only on soybeans labeled “mesotrione-tolerant”

• use rate of up to 6 ounces product per acre; only one application (higher rates improve length of residual and improve control of giant ragweed and other tough weeds)

• can be mixed with other preemergence soybean herbicides unless prohibited on another label

• for control of emerged weeds, add AMS plus either NIS or COC (would also depend upon what else is in the mix for burndown)

• do not apply to emerged soybeans

• do not graze or feed soybean forage or hay to livestock.… Continue reading

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The cost of SCN

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) for decades has been considered the most damaging pathogen throughout North America. It is estimated soybean farmers have lost $1.5 billion per year since 1996.

“Every 5 years a survey is conducted to determine what counties have SCN present,” said Dr. Greg Tylka, Morrill Professor in the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at Iowa State University. “In the most recent survey, 55 new counties were identified in the Unites States, with most of the new findings in the state of New York. That was largely due to an intentional survey that was conducted, which further proves we often don’t know if SCN exists until we look for it.”

SCN can be causing yield losses in soybean fields and have no above-ground symptoms. In Ohio, 70 of the 88 counties have fields where SCN has been found. In a random survey of Ohio soybean fields conducted by the USDA in 1995 and 1996, 60% of the samples submitted found SCN.

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Thoughts from the Ohio Field Leader on SCN resistant varieties

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean check-off

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) resistance is a good news, bad news situation. In a presentation given by Dr. Greg Tylka, Morrill Professor in the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at Iowa State University, numbers were shared that commanded everyone’s attention. One number in particular, as the saying goes, virtually “sucked all the air out of the room.” That number was 22.4 bushels per acre. While 22.4 bushels per acre may not seem overwhelming at first, the combination of that yield difference along with the cash price of soybeans put the total over the top. This was further impactful considering the difference in yield was not between the plot control variety and the best resistant variety in the plot, but rather it was within the resistant varieties tested. There was a greater than 22.4 bushel per acre yield difference between the SCN resistant varieties in the trial.

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