Crops



Shipping container supply impacting Ohio food grade soybeans

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

The Asian markets are half a world away from Ashtabula County, but the food grade soybeans grown in Northeast Ohio have a destination with anxious consumers waiting for them to arrive.  The issue causing the wait is not an agronomic production issue. It is a logistics and shipping issue.

“The companies that own the shipping containers which the soybeans are typically shipped in, want those containers back right away once the initial cargo is emptied, and they don’t want to let them go out to the farms or grain facilities to be re-loaded,” said Jeff Magyar, a farmer from Orwell, Ohio who currently serves as Chairman of the Ohio Soybean Council, and a food grade soybean grower. “All our soybeans are food grade beans for the Japanese Tofu market. Ohio, Indiana and Michigan have the best quality beans and the buyers want food grade beans specifically from this area.… Continue reading

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Tips from a yield champion

By Matt Reese and Dale Minyo

Chris Weaver is a sixth-generation farmer from central Maryland who has put a focus upon soybean agronomic research. He is credited with growing 158-bushel soybeans and boosting farm yield averages to over 100 bushels. Weaver stopped in Ohio in July to share some tips with farmers, courtesy of Golden Harvest

“We went from 60- to 70-bushel beans in 2010 when I took over, to over 100-bushels for an average on the farm. I had to overcome a bunch of hurdles to get my father and grandfather to understand not everything is a snake oil. It is a tough mindset to change everything we have been doing in the past. We had to change our thought process to increase the bean yield on the whole farm. We had to look at things differently. It is not about growing 158-bushel beans, it is increasing your farm average to increase your productivity to increase your ROI,” Weaver said.… Continue reading

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To spray or not to spray?

By Laura LindseyAndy MichelHoracio Lopez-Nicora, Ohio State University Extension

For foliar fungicide, first consider the disease triangle. For a disease to develop, there must be: 1) a susceptible host (Is your soybean variety resistant or susceptible?), 2) a virulent pathogen (Is there a history of a certain disease in your field? Do you see any visual symptoms of disease?), and 3) conducive environmental conditions. Most foliar diseases, such as brown leaf spot and frogeye leaf spot, are favored by wet conditions.

In our trials, brown leaf spot and frogeye leaf spot tend to be the two most common soybean diseases. In these trials, we’ve measured a yield response to foliar fungicide applied at R3 in 9 out of 28 environments, ranging from 4 to 8 bu/acre. At the responsive locations, which tended to be in central and southern Ohio, there were foliar disease present (brown spot and frogeye leaf spot).… Continue reading

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Mid-season soybean scouting

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff

Mid-July is an important time to get out into the soybean fields and take a good look at the crop conditions and identify the current stage of development. With the exception of extremely late planted beans or recently double-cropped soybeans, a majority of the fields in the state are in various early reproductive stages (R1-R3).

R2 Soybean Plant

Given the recent weather, some locations may be experiencing drought stress. Meteorologists have used the term “flash drought” to describe these conditions. A sign of soybeans facing drought stress is flipped leaves. This will show the underside of the leaf which has more of a silver-green appearance as it reflects the sunlight. These plants will tend to grow slower and produce smaller leaves compared to those not facing the stress.

Insect pressure is important to monitor at this time of year.… Continue reading

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Soy growers providing protein to address child malnutrition

The U.S. Agency for International Development announced nearly $1.3 billion in additional critical humanitarian and development assistance to Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, including $200 million for the procurement of Ready-to-Use-Therapeutic Food.

RUTFs, an energy-dense medical food paste made of soy, peanuts, powdered milk, vegetable oil, sugar and multivitamins, is one of the most effective tools to help severely malnourished children. The U.S. is one of the world’s largest and most cost-efficient producers of RUTFs, but American farmers have the capacity to produce more.  

This past spring, the American Soybean Association urged Congress to provide $200 million in appropriations to procure RUTFs and double the global supply to reach more food insecure children across the globe. ASA’s World Initiative for Soy in Human Health program works with companies like the Rhode Island-based Edesia, one of many enterprises that relies on U.S. soy to provide affordable, high-quality protein in its products designed to combat malnutrition, like RUTFs. … Continue reading

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Double-crop soybean insurance update

By Matt Reese

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) recently announced its expansion of double crop insurance opportunities for soybeans in at least 681 counties nationwide. The new expansion covers virtually all Ohio counties, allowing farmers to reduce the economic risk associated with growing two crops on the same land in the same year. 

The Ohio Soybean Association (OSA) met with representatives from RMA in June to discuss the impact an expansion like this could have on farmers. OSA supports the new measures.

“We are thankful that the Biden Administration has followed through on a promise it made to expand double crop insurance coverage back in May,” said Patrick Knouff of Shelby County, OSA President and soybean farmer. “Now, even more Ohio farmers can implement double-cropping while mitigating significant financial risk. This has been an OSA priority for several years, and our board pushed for such an expansion to be included in national policy priorities.”… Continue reading

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Fertilizer tariff rejected

American Farm Bureau Federation President Zippy Duvall commented on the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) vote to reject anti-dumping and countervailing duties on imports of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) from Russia and Trinidad and Tobago.

“AFBF is pleased the U.S. International Trade Commission did as we asked by rejecting the Commerce Department’s proposal to impose tariffs on imports of UAN, a key fertilizer. Skyrocketing supply costs are already forcing some farmers into the red. The cost of fertilizer increased more than 60% from 2021 to 2022 and that’s not sustainable.

“We appreciate the commission’s recognition that adding unnecessary import costs would have made it difficult for farmers to access an affordable supply of this crucial nutrient at a time when America’s farmers are being called on to meet growing demand here at home and abroad.”

Read the AFBF letter to USITC here.… Continue reading

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Scouting and Sampling for Soybean Cyst Nematode

Adapted from Dr. Anne Dorrance, The Ohio State University

Soybeans are Ohio’s number one cash crop. Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is the number one contributor to yield loss in soybean crops nationwide, causing an estimated $1.2 billion dollars in damage annually. This pest has been detected in 71 counties in Ohio, with the highest concentrations located in the northwestern part of the state.

Locations SCN has been found in Ohio

Significant yield reduction may take place with absolutely no above-ground symptoms. This is one of the main reasons one must sample fields for the presence and abundance of SCN. The quality of the diagnosis (and therefore, the effectiveness of management) is dependent on the method and timing of sampling.

Emerging populations of SCN may have adapted to the resistance found in certain varieties of soybean, rendering the plant susceptible to infection. While not 100% effective, resistant varieties are still providing a reasonable level of reducing or slowing SCN population development.… Continue reading

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Cover crops following wheat

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

A long growing season after wheat allows for many options including double-cropping soybeans or planting a cover crop. With high soybean prices, many farmers may want to plant soybeans, but hot and/or dry weather may reduce the chances for a profitable soybean crop. Many cover crops can be planted in late July or early August and take advantage of late summer rains and cooler fall temperatures.

Warm season cover crops grow in the summer but die with the first frost while cool season species generally survive the winter.  Major categories include brassicas, grasses, legumes, and other broadleaves with over 60 cover crop species.  Cover crops offer many advantages including adding carbon and soil organic matter (SOM), improving water infiltration and soil structure, tie up soluble nutrients, reduce weeds, and improve soil health.

Radish and Cereal Rye Cover Crop mix

Brassica cover crops are small seeded, fairly inexpensive, and include daikon radish, kale, and rape seed.… Continue reading

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Foliar feeding tips

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Corn and soybeans are entering a time of extreme stress due to hot temperatures and moisture stress.  Most plant nutrients are absorbed through a plant’s roots. However, sometimes nutrients can become locked up in the soil with other elements, making them unavailable to the plant. There are many factors that can contribute to nutrients becoming soil immobile. If the fertilizer solution pH is too high or too low, nutrient deficient, or excessive; some nutrients might not be plant absorbed. Poorly managed soils, low soil organic matter, low microbial activity, damaged root systems, excessive water or a lack of water can all lead to lowered rates of plant nutrient absorption. When a nutrient cannot be easily absorbed through the soil, foliar feeding may be a possible solution.

Foliar Feeding Soybeans

The leaves, and sometimes even the stems, of many plants are equipped with tiny, pore-like structures called stomata, which means “mouth” in Greek.… Continue reading

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Scouting for tar spot

By Pierce Paul and Jorge Valle, Ohio State University Extension

Tar spot is relatively easy to diagnose based on visual symptoms. So as the crop develops you should begin scouting fields to determine: 1) if tar spot is present, 2) estimate how much is there, 3) determine whether it is increasing over time, and 4) decide whether you should consider making a fungicide application. 

Walk down about 25-ft-of-row at 10 to 15 locations across the field and examine a pair of plants at every 10 steps for the presence of tar spot. Make a note of the total number of plants examined and the total number with tar spot symptoms. Divide the last number by the first and multiply by 100 to estimate tar spot incidence. Repeat these steps every 5-7 days, particularly of conditions are wet and rainy, to determine if the disease in increasing over time. 

Incidence = (number of plants with tar spot/total number of plants examined) x 100

However, it may be difficult for untrained eyes to tell tar spot apart from a few other diseases.… Continue reading

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Post-wheat harvest options

By James Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services

Farmers are working to wrap up wheat harvest and considering what to do next.  Some will decide to do nothing, others may consider planting another crop, either soybeans or a cover crop.  Double-crop soybeans do best when soil is moist and temperatures do not get too hot.  Cover crops give a farmer a little more flexibility, especially when planted in mixtures.  Research in North Dakota, shows that even with minimal moisture, cover crop mixtures can flourish. 

Radish and Cereal Rye Cover Crop Mix

If cover crops are to be planted, there are several considerations.  First, do you leave the straw and the biomass, or do you harvest it?  While many farmers want to conserve their carbon, the high carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of straw can reduce new cover crop plant growth.  For soybeans, it does not seem to matter, since they make their own N. … Continue reading

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OSA pleased with USDA expansion of double-crop soybean insurance

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Risk Management Agency recently announced its expansion of double crop insurance opportunities for soybeans in at least 681 counties nationwide, a move that the Ohio Soybean Association (OSA) supports. The new expansion covers virtually all Ohio counties, allowing farmers in the Buckeye State to reduce the economic risk associated with growing two crops on the same land in the same year. OSA met with representatives from RMA in June to discuss the impact an expansion like this could have on farmers. 

“We are thankful that the Biden Administration has followed through on a promise it made to expand double crop insurance coverage back in May,” said Patrick Knouff, OSA president and soybean farmer in Shelby County. “Now, even more Ohio farmers can implement double cropping while mitigating significant financial risk. This has been an OSA priority for several years, and our board pushed for such an expansion to be included in national policy priorities.”… Continue reading

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Soybean progress and flowering growth stages

By Laura Lindsey, OSU Extension Soybean and Small Grains Specialist, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2022-21

Currently, most soybean fields in Ohio are at the flowering growth stage (R1-R2). (Some late-planted or re-planted soybean may still be at a vegetative stage.) Even as soybean plants begin to flower, they may only have 3-5 trifoliolates due to late planting and wet weather followed by dry conditions. However, even if plants have flowers and only a few trifoliolates, the plant will continue to add leaf area up to the R5 growth stage, which comes 4-6 weeks later. As long as the canopy is complete by the beginning of seed filling, the plant has the potential to reach full yield potential.

R1 Flowering Soybean

What does the soybean crop need to maximize yield during the flowering growth stage? While adequate soybean flowers are needed for subsequent reproductive development, soybeans are amazingly resilient to stress during flowering due to their ability to continue to develop flowers over several weeks.… Continue reading

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Do I have resistant weeds?

By Greg LaBarge, CCA, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

There are a few questions you can work through to understand why weeds that should have been controlled with your herbicide package are still growing. The list of questions is from the Take Action Pesticide Resistance Management website (iwilltakeaction.com).

First, rule out factors that affect herbicide performance. 

  1. Misapplication

• Wrong rate, nozzle, or volume 

• Antagonism with tank-mix products

• pH of spray solution

• Boom height

• Calibration

  • Unfavorable weather conditions.
  • Weed factors

• Size

• Stressed plants

• Weed flushes that emerge after herbicide application.

  • Soil conditions that lower residual herbicide performance.

Resistance is likely if you answer yes to one or more of the questions.

  • Are other weeds listed on the product label satisfactorily controlled? Chances are, only one weed species will show herbicide resistance in any given field situation. However, if several normally susceptible weed species are present, go back to the list of factors affecting herbicide performance.
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Application of manure to double-crop soybeans to encourage emergence

By Glen Arnold, OSU Extension Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management, Adapted from C.O.R.N. 2022-21

Wheat harvest is mostly done in the state and some farmers are planting double-crop soybeans. The summer manure application window following wheat harvest is typically the 2nd largest application window each year. In recent years there has been more interest from livestock producers in applying manure to newly planted soybeans to provide moisture to help get the crop to emerge.

Double Crop Soybeans

Both swine and dairy manure can be used to add moisture to newly planted soybean fields. It’s important that the soybeans were properly covered with soil when planted to keep a barrier between the salt and nitrogen in the manure and the germinating soybean seed. It is also important that livestock producers know their soil phosphorus levels, and the phosphorus in the manure being applied, so soil phosphorus levels are kept in an acceptable range.… Continue reading

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The heat is on for Ohio soybeans

By Dusty Sonnenberg, CCA, Ohio Field Leader, a project of the Ohio Soybean Council and soybean checkoff.

With near record-breaking hot temperatures all across the mid-west, questions are being asked about the potential impact on the soybean crop. In many areas of Ohio, the soybean crop was stressed early on by the cold weather and concerns of imbibitional chilling. More recently it has been stressed by too much water. Now concern comes in the form of hot and dry weather.

Stressed Seedling Soybeans

Alex Lindsey, Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science is a plant physiologist. “From what I have read, soybean roots do enjoy warmer temperatures as long as they aren’t excessive to encourage growth and nodulation,” said Lindsey. “One paper tested temps up to 25C (77F) and saw optimal growth/nodulation, and another saw good nodulation at 28C (82F). I have also seen the range of 25-30C for optimum activity (77-86F).… Continue reading

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USDA backing biobased products

In late June, USDA announced available funding for the Bioproduct Pilot Program, which was established through the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act that was signed into law last November. The pilot program, which was a priority of the American Soybean Association (ASA) during drafting of the legislation, will provide $10 million over two years to study the benefits of biobased products for construction materials and consumer products.

“The Bioproduct Pilot Program will provide a great opportunity to expand upon what we in the soy family have been doing for years—creating plant-based, sustainable construction materials and consumer goods using U.S.-grown soy,” said Dave Walton, who grows soybeans in Iowa and is an ASA director and chair of the association’s Biofuels and Infrastructure Committee. “ASA was glad to work with Senator Rounds and others to support the inclusion of this language in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and we welcome this announcement from USDA.”

The Bioproduct Pilot Program is administered through the National Institute of Food and Agriculture. … Continue reading

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Is 19-19-19 the perfect forage fertilizer?

By Greg LaBarge, CCA, Ohio State University Extension agronomist

Balanced fertilizers with equal percentages of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium like 19-19-19 and 12-12-12 can be useful but should never be the long-term, sole fertilizer source applied to a forage field. Why? You can find the answer by comparing crop nutrient removal to nutrient application. 

First, let’s estimate crop removal. A cool-season grass hay mix yielding 3 tons per acre will remove 36 pounds of P2O5and 144 pounds of K2O. The removal values come from Nutrient Removal for Field Crops fact sheet (ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-96). The reference also lists other forage crops.

Now let’s determine the nutrient amount applied. If we use 200 pounds of 19-19-19, the nutrient available is 38 pounds each of N, P2O5, and K2O. 

With the removal and applied nutrient determined, let’s look at the nutrient balance provided by 200 pounds of 19-19-19.… Continue reading

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OSU cover crop research

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) awarded $150,000 through the Ohio Conservation Innovation Grants (CIG) program to Osler Ortez, an assistant professor for Ohio State University’s College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. With this funding, Ortez will test the effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana, a soil-borne fungus, in enhancing cover crop establishment and growth.
“The Conservation Innovation Grants program strives to support cutting-edge solutions for production and conservation in Ohio,” said John Wilson, NRCS Ohio State Conservationist. “Dr. Ortez’s project will help producers get more benefits out of crop system rotations — building soil organic matter, retaining nutrients and soil moisture, and ultimately improving cash crop yields.”
Beauveria bassiana is traditionally used for its ability to control a wide variety of insect species. It has also been found to serve as a growth enhancement in several crop species. The project will strive to apply those benefits to cover crop seeds to enhance cover crop establishment success in corn-soybean systems in Ohio.… Continue reading

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